Olfactory Bulb and its Clinical Significance

                   

The olfactory bulb is situated in the forebrain involved in the sense of smell. Olfactory bulb is a neural structure which plays a significant role in the emotion, learning and memory. Two types of olfactory system is present called main olfactory system and the accessory olfactory system. The main olfactory system find out the airborne substances whereas the accessory olfactory system helps to sense the fluid phase stimuli. The dysfunction of olfactory system results in an inability to find the odour and it is called as anosmia. Anosmia is associated with other problems such as hearing impairment of about 41% and tinnitus about 22.6%.Calminax is a natural product and it is designed well to improve the hearing loss and tinnitus which is available in Poland, Italy, France, Spain, Germany ,etc.

Damage to the olfactory system can be caused by the traumatic brain injury, infection, and cancer, inhalation of toxic gases and due to the neurodegenerative diseases. Detection of damage to the olfactory system is done by doctor by presenting the patients with odors through sniff card and also try to identify the odors like coffee or peppermint. Now we will focus on the common causes of the olfactory dysfunction.

a. Age

It is one of the common reason for the loos of smell in healthy adults. Unlike hearing and vision, the smell function is not tested in eth clinic and it is unnoticed by the people. After reaching the age of 65, chronic smelling problems may occur. Smell changes may be due to the closing of cribriform plate based on the age and problem in the olfactory receptor.

b. Viral infections

Anosmia is due to the respiratory infections and it undergoes changes over a time and it causes damage not only to the olfactory epithelium but also to the central olfactory structures. It finally reaches to the brain. Most of the viral infections are found to be asymptomatic and also present in the mild condition and therefore it is unrecognisable.

c. Exposure to the hazardous chemicals

Long term exposure to the toxic chemicals such as that of pesticides, herbicides, solvents and heavy metals such as that of chromium, nickel and cadmium tends to make some changes in the ability to smell.

d. Head trauma

The olfactory dysfunction due to the trauma or injury in the brain depends upon the severity. Occipital and side impact is responsible for the cause of more damage to the olfactory system compared to the frontal impact.